IMPORTANT WORDS IN ECE

Multiple Intelligences/Learning Styles

  • Visual (spatial): prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding.
  • Aural (auditory-musical): prefer using sound and music.
  • Verbal (linguistic): prefer using words, both in speech and writing.
  • Physical (kinesthetic): prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch.
  • Logical (mathematical): prefer using logic, reasoning and systems.
  • Social (interpersonal): prefer to learn in groups or with other people.
  • Solitary (intrapersonal): prefer to work alone and use self-study.
  • Naturalistic: prefer to touch, feel, hold, and do, preferably outdoors.

Development Areas/Domains and Skills for Young Children

Cognitive

  • accessing skills
  • aptitude
  • classification
  • comprehension
  • critical-thinking
  • executive function
  • flexibility & inventiveness
  • higher-order thinking
  • inquiry
  • learning to learn
  • metacognitive skills
  • problem-solving skills

Dispositions

  • curiosity, motivation

Emotional

  • emergent empathy

Language

  • alliteration
  • consonant
  • emergent reading/writing
  • expressive language
  • morpheme
  • phoneme
  • phonemic awareness
  • receptive language
  • social rules
  • verbal/oral expression
  • vowel

Moral

  • Kohlberg’s six stages

Physical

  • abduction vs. adduction
  • balancing skills
  • Fine/Small Motor
  • Gross/Large Motor
  • manipulative skills (gross/fine)
  • technology
  • traveling skills
  • vestibular
  • visual-motor coordination

Self-Help & Adaptive

Sensory

  • hearing/auditory
  • cross-modal
  • multisensory
  • smell/olfactory
  • touch/tactile (somatic)
  • taste/gustatory
  • sight/visual

Social

  • social cues
  • social problems

Pedagogy Related to Early Childhood Education

  • constructivism/constructivist approach
  • cooperative learning
  • Developmentally Appropriate Practice
  • direct teaching
  • discovery learning
  • embedded learning
  • guided discovery
  • hands-on learning
  • holistic learning
  • individual differences
  • individual learning styles
  • individualized instruction
  • inquiry learning
  • inquiry-based instruction
  • instructional objective
  • learning by doing
  • meaning-based instructional approach
  • modeling
  • multiple intelligences
  • project method
  • rote learning (not DAP for ECE)
  • scaffolding
  • skills-based instruction
  • student-centered education
  • teaching for understanding
  • thematic learning
  • transmission theory of schooling
  • vicarious learning
  • whole-language instruction (vs. phonemic/decoding) 

Assessment

  • anecdotal
  • authentic assessment
  • criterion-referenced test
  • curriculum-based assessment
  • direct assessment
  • deficit
  • environmental factors
  • fluency
  • formal assessment
  • formative assessment
  • functional assessment
  • high-stakes test
  • indirect assessment
  • milestone
  • naturalistic observation
  • performance-based assessment
  • portfolio assessment
  • red flag
  • regression
  • standardized test

RESOURCES

Activities by domain (includes moral development)
http://www.icanteachmychild.com/domains-of-early-childhood-development/

“Education Terminology Every Parent Must Understand”
http://www.nychold.com/hirsch-termin.html

Special Education Terminology Glossary - Center for Inclusive Child Care
http://www.inclusivechildcare.org/inclusion_glossary.cfm

 

DEFINITIONS

Abduction
Abduction means to move away from the middle of the body.[ii]

Accessing skills
means teaching kids how to learn (how to access information or look things up) rather than transmitting specific knowledge to the students; the reasoning is that knowledge and technology changes too rapidly to bother with transmitting "soon-to-be-outmoded facts". As a result, schools teach kids how to depend on the dictionary, encyclopedia, etc. As Hirsch says, this is an important skill, but it doesn't take long to learn. "These sources cannot replace students' ready knowledge of varied subject matters and word meanings ... Even when using an encyclopedia or CD-ROM, students without prior background knowledge cannot understand the things they look up."[i]

Academic Aptitude
Ability needed for schoolwork; likelihood of success in mastering academic work, as estimated from measures of the necessary abilities. (Also called scholastic aptitude.)[ii]

Adduction
Adduction means to move toward the middle of the body.[ii]

Alliteration
the use of words that begin with the same sound near one another (as in wild and woolly or a babbling brook)*

Anecdotal
An anecdotal observation is a factual account of an incident. The precise sequence of events is documented using descriptive language in order to describe exactly what occurs during a given situation. The setting and context are also carefully described.[1]

Aptitude
1: a natural ability; 2: capacity for learning*

Authentic Assessment
A laudatory term for grading "real-world" (i.e. applied) projects. These projects can include, among others, letters, exhibitions, producing a play, or solving a practical mathematical problem. Teachers feel this method of measurement is better than teaching through separate subjects and grading by objective multiple-choice exams. Teachers feel projects are more motivational and fairer to minorities. Hirsch says that performance testing is only one tool that should be used in the classroom. For example, performance testing is necessary in evaluating writing. However, Hirsch claims that "authentic assessments" have been shown to be "ineradicably subjective and arbritrary in grading ... The consensus among psychometricians is that these objective [multiple-choice] tests, rather than performance tests, are the fairest and most accurate achievement tests available."[i]

Balancing Skills
a gross motor fundamental skill [2]

Classification
is a general process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood 14] are of value in a culture.'- DAP" cleine; knowledge

Cognitive
Cognitive is a term that describes the process people use for remembering, reasoning, understanding, and using judgment.[ii]

complete a sentence by filling in the blank or providing a meaningful word for the blank.[ii]

Comprehension
a: the act or action of grasping with the intellect; b: knowledge gained by comprehending; c: the capacity for understanding fully*

Consonant
a speech sound that is not a vowel. It also refers to letters of the alphabet that represent those sounds**

Constructivism
This term is used to give progressivist education ideas a "spurious scientific-sounding authority." Proponents of constructivism suggest that the only knowledge worth acquiring is that which a student finds for one's self because it is more likely to be remembered and used. Hirsch recognizes that this kind of knowledge is useful. However, he also claims that "both discovery learning and guided learning" are actually "constructivist," so the term doesn't add anything to the discussion.[i]

Cooperative Learning
Basically, this means splitting a class into groups to work on a joint assignment. Teachers like this idea because it results in fewer papers to grade, it allows for peer tutoting, and it supposedly does away with an emphasis on competition. Regrettably, the idea is rife with problems: more capable students end up doing most of the work, and students learn to be followers instead of leaders. Hirsch says: "Cooperative learning, used with restraint, can be an excellent method of instruction when used in conjunction with whole-class instruction. It has not been effective when used as the principal or exclusive means of instruction."[i]

Criterion-Referenced Test
measure a child’s performance against a predetermined set of criteria, generally developmentally sequenced or task analyzed skills [3]

Critical Thinking[ii]
Solving problems by systematically examining the problem and the evidence and linking it with past knowledge.[ii]

Critical-Thinking
This term refers to the ability to analyze ideas and solve problems in an independent fashion by developing the ability to locate a main idea and look it up in resources. This is a goal we should all hope to achieve. However, some educators feel this is the only thing students need. They oftentimes will caricature the acquisition of subject knowledge as rote learning of "mere facts." In their mind, it has lesser value. Hirsch says: "This tool conception, however, is an incorrect model of real-world critical thinking. Independent-mindedness is always predicated on relevant knowledge: one cannot think critically unless one has a lot of relevant knowledge about the issue at hand."[i]

Cross-Modal
Including more than one sensory modality.[ii]

Curiosity
the desire to learn or know more about something or someone*

Curriculum-Based Assessment
Use of assessment materials and procedures that mirror instruction in order to ascertain whether specific instructional objectives have been accomplished and to monitor progress directly in the curriculum being taught.[ii]

Deficit
A level of performance that is less than expected for a child.[ii]

Developmentally appropriate
If a teacher uses this term, he or she is suggesting that a child's innocence needs to be preserved by not exposing the student to early hard work. The child will learn when he is "ready." This term, according to Hirsch, is "devoid of scientific meaning and lacks scientific authority," especially as millions of kids across the world have been exposed to and benefited from early hard work. Yet some teachers feel such work is "developmentally inappropriate" for our kids! This has a particularly disastrous effect for disadvantaged children. Specifically, he says "many advantaged children receive in their homes the early practice and knowledge they need, whereas many disadvantaged children gain these preparatory learnings, if at all, only in school. The learning processes involved in the unnatural skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic are inherently slow at first, then speed up cumulatively and exponentially. Because of the cumulative character of school learning, educationally delayed children rarely catch up. When an elementary school declines to teach demanding knowledge and skills at an early age, the school is unwittingly withholding education differentially from different social classes." Students with poor or disadvantaged homes suffer the most, and social injustice is perpetuated.[i]

Developmentally Appropriate Practice – “DAP”
DAP is a framework of principles and guidelines for best practice in the care and education of young children, birth through age 8.[ii]

the use of teaching strategies that are based on knowledge of how young children develop and learn, what makes each child unique, and the child's community and family culture and home language. DAP activities are not too difficult or too easy, but just right. [4]

Direct Assessment
Directly observing a behavior and describing the conditions that surround it.[ii]

Direct Teaching
Direct Teaching is a way to provide instruction. The goal of this method is the students’ mastery of skills. Direct teaching demands that the instructor have a solid understanding of the subject material and present the material in a clear, logical, and sequential way.[ii]

Discovery Learning
This teaching method offers students projects to work on rather than textbooks to read. Teachers feel that students will be more likely to remember what they learn from the experience than they would from reading and regurgitating facts. Hirsh agrees that discovery learning plays a vital role in a child's education, however, he describes two serious flaws in using this method exclusively: (1) Students sometimes miss the discovery they were supposed to make and sometimes even make incorrect discoveries. Thus, a definitive goal must be set in the beginning. If the goal is not achieved, the teacher must use direct teaching. (2) Discovery learning is inefficient. Some students never gain the knowledge they were seeking, and even if they do the process is very slow and time-consuming.[i]

Dispositions
2a: prevailing tendency, mood, or inclination*

Embedded Learning
Embedded learning refers to specifically designed practices that are used to promote children’s engagement, learning, and independence in everyday activities, routines, and transitions in the classroom, home, and community. For more information on embedded learning, a CICC info module titled Inclusion Strategies, Embedded Learning and Universal Design: Definitions and Strategies can be found at http://www.inclusivechildcare.org/learning-info-mod.html.[ii]

Emergent Empathy
emergent - 1: in the process of coming into being or becoming prominent***
empathy - the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within the other person's frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.[5]
Kohlberg’s conventional level of morality - Lawrence Kohlberg argued that higher moral development requires role taking ability.{3} For instance, Kohlberg’s conventional level of morality (between ages 9 and 13, roughly), involves moral stereotyping, empathy-based morality, alertness to and behaviour guided by predicted evaluations by others, and identifying with authority, all of which require role taking.{3} [6]

Emergent Literacy
The concept of emergent literacy suggests the development of literacy takes place within the child over time. It begins at birth and is encouraged through participation with adults in fun, meaningful activities. Emergent literacy includes oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge. For more information on emergent literacy, a CICC info module titled “Emergent Literacy – Introduction” can be found at http://www.inclusivechildcare.org/learning-info-mod.html.[ii]

Environmental Factors
Variables that affect how children learn in school such as poverty, racial discrimination, lead exposure, lack of access to health care, and family stress.[ii]

Executive Function
(also known as cognitive control and supervisory attentional system) is an umbrella term for the management (regulation, control) of cognitive processes, including working memory, reasoning, task flexibility, and problem solving as well as planning and execution. [7]

Expressive Language
Ability to use language to communicate and express oneself.[ii]

Fine Motor Skills
Control of small muscles in the hands and fingers, which are needed for activities such as writing and cutting.[ii]

Flexibility
3: characterized by a ready capability to adapt to new, different, or changing requirements*

Fluency
The ability to read a text accurately and quickly with appropriate pauses and emotion.[ii]

Formal Assessment
A formal assessment is conducted by professionals trained in assessment methodology in typical or atypical development.[ii]

Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
Functional behavioral assessment is generally considered to be a problem-solving process for addressing challenging student behavior. It relies on a variety of techniques and strategies to identify the purposes of specific behavior and to help IEP teams select interventions to directly address the challenging behavior.[ii]

Functional Behaviors
Behaviors (basic skills, such as meal-time skills) that a child has mastered, or needs to master, in order to get along as independently as possible in society.[ii]

Gross Motor Skills
Control of large muscles in the arms, legs and torso, which are needed for activities such as running and walking.[ii]

Guided Discovery
Teaching strategy where the learner is given the tools to solve a problem and made responsible to find a solution with minimal instructor intervention.[ii]

Hands-On Learning
(Also referred to as "discovery learning, holistic learning, and thematic learning.") "A phrase that implies the superiority of direct, tactile, lifelike learning to indirect, verbal, rote memorization ... Very often the term'hands-on' is an honorific term used to praise the progressivist 'project method' of education and to disparage a 'whole-class instruction,' which is conducted mainly by visual and verbal means. The superiority of this method has not been born out in experience." Hirsch claims research suggests that "such methods are uncertain, unfair (not all children learn from them), and inefficent, and therefore should be used sparingly."[i]

Hearing/Auditory
of, relating to, or experienced through hearing <auditory stimuli>*

High Stakes Tests
High stakes tests are tests that, if not passed, will deny a student graduation until it is passed.[ii]

Higher Order Thinking
Thinking that takes place in the higher levels of the hierarchy of cognitive processing beginning from knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, to evaluation.[ii]

Higher-Order Skills
"A phrase for the superior thinking skills that many current educational reforms aim to achieve. The goal is to produce students who can think and read critically, who can find information, who have mastered metacognitive strategies, and who know how to solve problems. Such students, it is asserted, will be far better prepared to face the challenges of the twenty-first century than those who merely possess a lot of traditional, soon-to-be-outdated, rote-learned information. Again, the tool conception of learning reappears, but research in cognitive psychology does not support it." According to Hirsch, "there is no way to gain the skills without gaining the associated information. It is mere prejudice to assert that strategies associated with using domain-specific information are of a 'higher order' than the knowledge itself."[i]

Holistic Learning
"(Same meaning as 'thematic learning' and is combined with 'discovery learning' and 'the project method.') A term for classroom learning organized around integrated, lifelike problems and projects rather than around standard subject-matter disciplines. Educators hope to make learning 'relevant' to life." Hirsch points out that holistic learning has always been used as when history and art overlap. However, it is less useful for teaching mathematics or other specialized subjects that require a lot of practice. Typically, Hirsch says, the problem is less with the method used than with its "injudicious overuse."[i]

Indirect Assessment
Gathering information about a student from other sources besides directly observing the student.[ii]

Individual Differences
"A phrase reflecting the admirable desire to combine mass schooling with respect for diversity and individuality." Hirsch worries that this term has become "a rationalization for expecting and demanding less from children for whom we need to provide more support--inherently able students from disadvantaged homes." Unfortunately, schools are ill-equipped to provide individual tutorials while students progress "at their own pace."[i]

Individual Learning Styles
Common sense and experience demonstrates that not all students learn the same way. Some kids are verbal learners, others are visual. Educators will use this term as a nonjudgmental way of discussing academic ability, and as a rationalization for kids not achieving better results. "Since the only economically feasible and fair system of schooling is one that engages all students in a class most of the time (i.e., a system that employs a generous amount of effective whole-class instruction), one policy implication of different learning styles is that teachers should vary their teaching by using visual aids, concrete examples, and tactile experiences as well as verbal concepts in presenting what is to be learned."[i]

Individualized instruction
This essentially means tutorial-like teaching for every child--an impossibility in classrooms that typically have a student/teacher ratio of 20:1. The consequences of attempting such instruction is special treatment for some and neglect for others; the latter having to do silent seatwork in the interim.[i]

Inquiry
1: an instance of questioning, 2: a search for knowledge**

Inquiry Learning
A learning method where students develop solutions to their own questions under the guidance of a teacher.[ii]

Inquiry-Based Instruction
Teaching by asking puzzling questions that lead the learner to solve a specific problem.[ii]

Instructional Objective
The intended educational goal of a lesson, or what a teacher intends a student to learn during a lesson.[ii]

Inventiveness
inventive: having or showing an ability to think of new ideas and methods; creative or imaginative*
inventiveness: the power of creative imagination**

Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development
Level 1 (Pre-Conventional): 1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?); 2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?) (Paying for a benefit).
Level 2 (Conventional): 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) (The good boy/girl attitude); 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality).
Level 3 (Post-Conventional): 5. Social contract orientation; 6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience). [8]

Learning by Doing
Hirsch says this term illuminates the progressivist tradition, although the phrase is not used much anymore. Today educators substitute "discovery learning" and "hands-on learning". "It implicitly opposes itself to education that is primarily verbal, as well as to schooling that is artificially organized around drill and practice."[i]

Learning to Learn
This term refers to the tool conception of learning. The argument educators make in its favor is that information becomes outdated, but the ability to find information doesn't. Therefore, teaching facts is a waste of time. "But the tool conception, which makes the fish inferior to the hook, line, and sinker, is based upon a gravely inadequate metaphor of the skill of learning. Indeed, even learning how to fish requires a great deal of domain-specific knowledge."[i]

Manipulatives
Tangible items, such as blocks, that allow students to process ideas through concrete movement of items.[ii]

Meaning-Based
An instructional approach that focuses on engaging the student in the meaning of what he or she is studying.[ii]

Metacognitive Skills
The broadest meaning of the term is identified with "accessing skills," "critical-thinking skills," and "problem-solvinging skills." "Children who have learned how to set and meet such study goals for themselves (e.g., how to scan a text for the main reading, how to decide on what is more or less important in a subject with respect to their own study aims) are students who are better able to work independently ... The teaching of such self-conscious monitoring can speed up the learning of reading and problem-solving skills. But since expert skills are also dependent on domain-specific knowledge, the teaching of metacognition in this narrow sense is recognized as a useful but not sufficient help in learning a skill."[i]

Milestone
a significant point in development*

Modeling
A procedure for learning in which the individual observes a model perform some task and then imitates the performance of the model. This form of learning accounts for much verbal and motor learning in young children.[ii]

Morpheme
A group of letters that convey meaning but cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. For example, a word such as man or the part of the word such as ed in stopped.[ii]

Motivation
the condition of being eager to act or work : the condition of being motivated*

Multiple Intelligences
“According to [Howard] Gardner, an intelligence is ‘a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture.’{5}” “Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria:{2} musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. He later suggested that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.{3}”

Multisensory
Generally applied to training procedures which simultaneously utilize more than one sense modality.[ii]

Naturalistic Observation
A type of observation where the observer begins without any preconceived ideas about what will be observed and describes behavior that seems important.[ii]

Performance-Based Assessment
"The original term used by specialists in the psychometric literature for what is called variously 'authentic assessment,' 'exhibitions,' and 'portfolio assessment.'" In simple terms, it means a student would receive a grade for an entire essay or a musical performance, just as they might in the real world. However, critics of performance-based assesment claim that "performances" in school do not duplicate the real world. "The most important criticism is that when used for high-stakes testing, performance tests are much less fair and reliable than well-constructed objective tests The best uses of performance tests are as lower-stakes 'formative' tests, which help serve the goals of teaching and learning within the context of a single course of study."[i]

Phoneme
The smallest unit of sound that still conveys meaning such as the m of mat and the b of bat.[ii]

Portfolio Assessment
An extended version of "performance-based assessment." Collections of works done during the year are kept in a folder and graded as a whole--aiming to reward improvement over time. Hirsch says this works fairly well for teaching writing and painting, but nothing else. "It has proved to be virtually useless for large-scale, high-stakes testing."[i]

Problem-Solving Skills
"In a narrow sense, it refers to the ability to solve problems in mathematics or other specialized fields. More broadly, it refers to a general resourcefulness and skill that will enable the student to solve various future problems ... Work on the problem-solving abilities of specialists like doctors, chess players, and physicists has shown consistently that the ability to solve problems is critically dependent upon a deep, well-practiced knowledge within the special domain, and that these problem solving abilities do not readily transfer from one domain to another ... In short, there seems to exist no abstract, generalized, teachable ability to solve problems in a diversity of domains. For schools to spend time teaching a general skill that does not exist is clearly a waste of resources, which illustrates the inherent shortcomings of the tool conception of education."[i]

Project Method
"A phrase used to describe the naturalistic form of teaching devised by W. H. Kilpatrick at the beginning of the progressive education movement in 1918." Kilpatrick's method condones giving up subject-matter teaching in favor of "holistic" real-life projects. The method rejects the notion of lectures, tests, grades, and drills. Terminology has changed over the years to "discovery learning, hands-on learning, holistic learning, learning by doing," and "thematic learning."[i]

Receptive Language
Language that is spoken or written by others and received by the individual. The receptive language skills are listening and reading.[ii]

Red Flag
Red flags, sometimes referred to as absolute indicators, indicate that children should be screened to ensure they are on the right developmental path. For more information on developmental red flags, a CICC info module titled The First Signs: Red Flags and Referral can be found at (http://www.inclusivechildcare.org/learning-info-mod.html).[ii]

Regression
The return to a previous or earlier developmental phase of adaptation, partially or symbolically, of more infantile ways of gratification.[ii]

Rote Learning
Rote learning used to mean asking an entire class to recite in unison answers to set questions, whether or not they understood the meaning of the question or the answer. Today, educators define rote learning variously as 'spouting words,' 'memorization without understanding,' and isolated facts. The teachers feel that these things prevent students from becoming independent thinkers. Hirsch admits that all of these concerns are valid. However, "it is better to encourage the integrated understanding of knowledge over the merely verbal repetition of separate facts. It is better for students to think for themselves than merely to repeat what they have been told. For all of these reasons, rote learning is inferior to learning that is internalized and can be expressed in the student's own words. These valid objections to purely verbal, fragmented, and passive education have, however, been used as a blunt instrument to attack all emphasis on factual knowledge and vocabulary ... In the progressive tradition, the attack on rote learning (timely in 1918) has been used to attack factual knowledge and memorization, to the great disadvantage of our children's academic competencies."[i]

Scaffolding
A framework that students can follow to guide them through a process. For example, a set of questions that can be generalized to activities that reflect similar processes.[ii]

Self-Help & Adaptive
examples: dressing, feeding, personal hygiene; abilities toward being self-reliant [9]

Sensory Processing
Sensory Processing is the ability to take in information through the senses (touch, movement, smell, taste, vision, and hearing) to put it together with information, memories, and knowledge stored in the brain, and to make a meaningful response. Difficulty in processing and organizing sensory information causes dysfunction.[ii]

Sight/Visual
relating to or using sight**

Skills-Based
An instructional approach that focuses on the development of the student’s specific skills in an area of study.[ii]

Smell/Olfactory
of, relating to, or connected with the sense of smell*

Social Cues/Social Perception
Social Perception - The ability to interpret stimuli in the social environment and appropriately relate such interpretations to the social situation. [ii]
Social cues - stimuli in the social environment

Social Problems
tool used to teach social problem solving to children [10]

Social Rules (Convention)
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. [11]

Somatic
affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit**

Standardized Tests
Tests that use consistent directions, consistent criteria for scoring, and consistent procedures.[ii]

Student-centered education
The same concept as "child-centered education" except the name is changed to reflect middle- and high-school-aged students. The focus is on the student rather than "mere facts." Again Hirsch reminds us that "schools are organized and instituted primarily to teach subject matters and skills, and it is their first duty to do so as effectively as possible."[i]

Taste/Gustatory
relating to or associated with eating or the sense of taste*

Teaching for understanding
"A phrase that contrasts itself with teaching for 'mere facts.'" It is associated with the motto "Less is more" which implies that depth is preferable to breadth in education, on the claim that depth leads to understanding, whereas breadth leads to superficiality and fragmentation. Few would dissent from the aim of teaching for understanding. Clearly the term needs different interpretations in the different grades. Take the alphabet. A kindergartner should understand the principle that the letters of the alphabet represent sounds. At a later stage, students should understand some peculiarities of English spelling and the differences between vowels and consonants. Still later, students might come to understand the historical uniqueness of the alphabetic system of writing, as contrasted with the various other modes.[i]

Technology
the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems; a machine, piece of equipment, method, etc., that is created by technology*

Thematic Learning
"A phrase used to describe the 'holistic' teaching of different subject matters across a common theme. For instance, the theme of 'The Seasons" might combine a study of history, art, science, and mathematics in a particular classroom, or grade, or throughout the entire school. There is much to be said for integrated learning that contextualizes subjects and reinforces them. As with various forms of the 'project method,' however, thematic learning has proved to be more successful when used with prudence as an occasional device than when used consistently as the primary mode of instruction. One reason for entering this caution is that some subjects require different amounts of exposure than others in order to be learned. History and literature, for example, generally require fewer reinforcements to achieve a learning goal than do certain aspects of math and science, whose procedures must be often repeated and practiced. The thematic approach may or may not provide these needed reinforcements. As with most pedagogical methods, the key is common sense. If students have been well monitored and are known to have mastered the basic subject matters that are to be dealt with in the thematic project, then the method is an attractive way of encouraging student enthusiasm and further learning."[i]

Touch/Tactile
of, relating to, or being the sense of touch*

Transmission Theory Of Schooling
"A derogatory phrase used by progressivists to imply that traditional schooling merely transmits an established social order by perpetuating its culture, knowledge, and values. It is contrasted with the more "modern" tool conception of schooling, which aims to produce students capable of thinking independently and of criticizing and improving the established social order. In progressivist writings of the 1920s and '30s, the transmission theory of education was identified with decadent and static Europe, while the open-ended tool conception was identified with a vibrant, forward-moving United States. John Dewey, despite having been claimed by progressivists as their intellectual leader, stated explicitly in 'Democracy and Education' that the transmission theory of education is both sound in itself and an absolutely necessary principle of civilization: 'Society not only continues to exist by transmission, by communication, but it may fairly be said to exist in transmission.' Dewey was certainly correct in taking this view, which coincides with common sense and with the view of the general public."[i]

Traveling Skills
locomotor skills, preschool assessment [12], activities [13]

Verbal Expression
Ability to communicate orally. Typically referred to as oral expression.[ii]

Vestibular
Having to do with the body’s system for maintaining equilibrium.[ii]

Vicarious Learning
The acquisition of response capabilities without practice. Learning by observation of the behavior of others (modeling) is an example of vicarious learning.[ii]

Visual-Motor Coordination
The ability to coordinate vision with the movements of the body or parts of the body.[ii]

Vowel
1: one of a class of speech sounds in the articulation of which the oral part of the breath channel is not blocked and is not constricted enough to cause audible friction; broadly :  the one most prominent sound in a syllable; 2: a letter or other symbol representing a vowel —usually used in English of a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y*

Whole-Language Instruction
"A phrase denoting an approach to the teaching of reading that emphasizes the joy of good literature and avoids drill-like instruction in letter sounds. In theory, the method is supposed to motivate children by emphasizing an interest and pleasure in books, and by encourging students to learn reading holistically, just as they learned their mother tongue--as a 'psycholinguistic guessing game.' Some children do learn to read under this method, but many do not. 'Whole language,' like 'outcomes-based education,' has grown and spread far beyond its initial confined meaning to become a philosophy of life and teaching, muddled by pseudopolitical associations. The term has become so vague, and so colored with nonpedagogical overtones that it could profitably be dropped entirely from use. After large-scale experience with its unsatisfactory results, especially in California, some former adherents of whole language now advocate a 'mixed' approach in which some letter-sound correspondences are taught explicitly. No well-regarded scholar in the field of reading now advocates an approach that neglects phonics and phonemic awareness. Many experts believe that with proper instruction nearly every child can read at grade level by the end of first or second grade."[i]

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*Merriam-Webster online dictionary

**Vocabulary.com

***Google dictionary

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[i] “Education Terminology Every Parent Must Understand” - http://www.nychold.com/hirsch-termin.html

[ii] Special Education Terminology Glossary - Center for Inclusive Child Care - http://www.inclusivechildcare.org/inclusion_glossary.cfm

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[1] www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/334387.html

[2] http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/foundation_stage/areas_of_learning/physical_development/FMS_Balance.pdf

[3] http://www.k12.wa.us/EarlyLearning/pubdocs/assessment_print.pdf

[4] https://www.naeyc.org/tyc/eceglossary

[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empathy

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role-taking_theory#Evidence_for_a_relation_between_Piaget.27s_theory_and_role-taking_ability

[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_functions

[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Kohlberg%27s_stages_of_moral_development#Stages; {3} refers to: Selman, R.L. (1971b). "The relation of role taking to the development of moral judgment in children". Child Development, 42: 79–91. doi:10.2307/1127066.

[9] http://www.tats.ucf.edu/docs/eUpdates/Curriculum-14.pdf

[10] http://ecmhc.org/tutorials/social-emotional/mod4_3.html

[11] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_(norm)

[12] http://www2.cde.state.co.us/scripts/ECCCrosswalks/crosswalk.asp?cw=GLD&L1=Physical&L2=4

[13] http://www.pecentral.org/lessonideas/searchresults.asp?-Search=Find+Them&subcategory=Traveling+and+Locomotor+Skills

[14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_multiple_intelligences